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Voice of "Plight of the Eritrean Refugees, Toronto, Canada"
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QWSQWAM 2013 - ERITREAN REFUGEE DAY

"Rachel is weeping unconsolably the death of her childre . . . " cf. Jer 21: 31

Stephen Foster

TORONTO, ON, NOV 24, 2013 -This is the time of the year where all Eritrean refugees all over the world are calling for their voices to be heard, their faces to be recognized, their human right is to be addressed and most of their questions answered.
We at the Plight of Eritrean Refugees Committee are here to try and answer some of these callings by commemorating the month of November to be Eritrean refugees’ month and in particular November 15 to be Eritrean refugees’ day. We recognize all Eritrean refugees by organizing a day event such as today in an attempt to draw attention to thousands of displaced Eritrean refugees facing critical condition all over the world.
For the last five years, The P.E.R Committee has experienced the challenges of meeting the numerous demands of the Eritrean refugees. We tried to address some of the essential needs in the past, we had held a full day
SALINAConference within the community by inviting key speakers from Immigration Canada, settlement agencies, immigration lawyers and the archdiocese to exchange information and get some answer to the needs of all Eritrean refugees. We have also held a fundraising event to try to help Eritrean refugees get sponsorship, we participated in several conferences and meetings related to immigration and refugees matters, we have communicated with different organizations, written letters and signed petitions. P.E.R. Committee has also become a member of the Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) which is a national umbrella organization. We continue to participate in CCR conferences, working group meetings to advocate the Eritrean Refugees needs in a national setting. 
In the last 12 months P.E.R. has participated or acted in:
•     The second national conference of Catholic refugees’ offices in Canada.
•    We continued to work together with ORAT, CCR and other sponsorship agreement holders’ agencies.
mARY jO lEDDY•    We have participated in the spring consultation of CCR in Vancouver, British Colombia
•    We have meet with Citizenship and Immigration Canada officials in Ottawa who are in a position of decision-making in refugees’ matters including Mrs. Debra Presse (Director of refugees’ resettlement Refugees affair branch) as well as Mr. Wally Boxhill (Director of strategic management and coordination Management program branch) where we addressed and discussed Eritrean Refugees matters.
•    We have finalized a sponsorship agreement for Dawit Yohannes and his family to settle in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
•    We have participated in coordinating the Blended VOR Sponsorship Initiative Program with CIC to sponsor 75 Eritrean refugees from Sudan to settle in Canada. The majority of those refugees were sponsored by Eritrean Canadian Islamic Association. Other groups also contributed to this program including our own Chaplain with one sponsorship and our committee member Bahlibi Tekle sponsored one refugee, that individual is here in Canada today who is the first to arrive under this program.
•    We have brought our grief and written letters on recent tragedy in Lampedusa and other Eritrean refugees’ matters to the attention of Cardinal Collins in the Catholic Church, to Member of Parliament in our riding, to the chair of CIC and to Foreign Affairs Parliamentary committee.
•    We have organized a memorial services and candle light vigil for the victims of Lampedusa both in Geez Rite and English.
•     And at last we have organized this annual P.E.R. Event.

The P.E.R Committee will continue its work in partnership with other similar group and agencies to advocate the needs and human right of all E
ritrean refugees that are displaced throughout the world.

We will be participating in the fall consultation of CCR in Kitchener, Ontario from November 27 to 30 where we will make the P.E.R. case to the organization in person.

The P.E.R. committee needs to be more visible in all area to be heard and present the situation of Eritrean refugees to people and departments that are in positions of decision making.
 
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ቍስቋም 2013

SIMON G.SELASSIEኣብ ወንጌል ማቴዎስ (2፥ 13 - 18) ከም እንረኽቦ፣  ንጉሥ ሄሮድስ ናይ ጐ. ኢየሱስ ክርስቶስ ምውላድ ኣሰንቢድዎ ኣብ ቤተልሔምን ከባቢኣን ንዝነበሩ ሕጻናት ክቕተሉ ምስ ኣዘዘ፣ እግዚእትነ ማርያምን ቅዱስ ዮሴፍን ንሕጻን ኢየሱስ ሒዞሞ ብመልኣኽ ከምዝተሓበሮም ናብ ምድሪ ግብጺ ተሰደዱ። ብሂል ቤተክርስትያን ከምዝዝክሮ ድማ ቍስቋም ኣብ ዚበሃል መዕረፊ ኣዕረፉ። ክርስትና ኣብ ግብጺ ምስ ኣተወ ቀዳሞት ክርስትያን ኣብዚ ቦታ ቤተክርስትያንን ገዳምን ሃኒጾም ብዕለት 6 ኅዳር ምጽንባሉ ይዝክሩ።

በዚ መሰረት ድማ ሰንበት November 24, 2013 ኣብ ቤተክርስትያና ኪዳነ ምሕረት ቶሮንቶ “መዓልቲ ስደተኛታት ኤርትራ” ተዘኪሩ ውዒሉ።  ኣብቲ  ብመሥዋዕቲ ቅዳሴ ዝጀመረ መዓልቲ ጸሎትን ኣስተንትኖን፥ ብርክት ዝበለ ሕዝቢ ተኻፊሉ። ናይቲ ዕለት መራሒ ጠቕሲ “ራሄል ብደቃ በኸየት፥ ስለዘየለዉ ድማ ምእባድ ኣበየት” (ማቴ 2፥18፤ ኤ 31፥ 15) ኰይኑ ወዓለ፥ ብእቶ ተስፋልደት ኣድኃኖም ዚቐረበ ፖስተር ድማ ስእላዊ መልእኽቱ ተመሓላሊፉ።

ድሕሪ ቅድሴ ኣብ ዝተገብረ ሰሚናር፣ ዝተፈላለየ ወረቓቕቲ ቀሪቡ።  ኃውና ስምዖን ገብረሥላሴ “ኮሚቴ ጥርዓን ስደተይናታት ኤርትራ” ኣብ ዝሓለፈ ዓመት ዝገበሮ ፍጻሜታትን፦ ዝተኻፈሎ ኣኼባታትን፦ ምሰካፈለ፥ መንግስቲ ካናዳ ኣብ ዓመት ክንደይ ስደተኛታት ከምትቕበልን እንታይ መምዘኒንታት ከምዜድልዩን፥ ብፍላይ ድማ ኣብ ውሽጢ ካናዳ ኰይኖም ዑቕባ ንዚሓቱ ሰባት ኬጋጥሞም ዚኽእል በድሆታት ብመንጽር ኣብ ቀረባ ጊዜ ዝተኣታተወ ለውጥታትን ብናይ ኢሚግሬሽን ክኢላ ሚስተር  ስቲቭ ፎስተር ዝርዝር መብርሂ ተዋሂቡ።

ብዘይካ’ዚ ድማ ብመንእሰይ ሳሊና ሓደ ልብኻ ዝትንክፍ ናይ ሓደ ኤርትራዊ ስደተኛ ኣብ መሳገርቲ ዘሕለፎ ሕይወትን ስቅያትን ዝሕብር ጽሑፍ ትነቢቡ።  ኣስዒቡ መንእሰይ ዳዊት ድማ ብዛዕባ ናይ ብሕቲ ታሪኹን ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት ዘሕልፍዎ ዘለዉ ሽግርን ናብራን ኣብሪሁ።

ካብዚ ቀጺሉ ድማ ብዶ/ር ሜሪ ጆ ለዲ፥ መስራቲትን ኣካያዲትን መዕቆብ ሰደተኛታት ሮመሮ ሃውስ ተመኵሮኣ ምስ ስደተይናታት ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ሶማልን ገሊጻ። ኣብ ገዛውቲ እዘን ንሳ ዘመሓዳደረተን ካነዳውያን ዝኾና ስደተይናታት ክትኣቱ እንከላ፥ እሞ ንሳተን ሻህን ቍርስን ብገርህነትን ለጋስነትን ኬካፍላኣ እንከለዋ ትዕዛቦ ዝነበረት ሰላም ቅሳነትን እናመልከተት ሰብ መሰረታዊ ድልየታቱ ምስ ኣዕገበ ከመይ ዝመሰለ ሰላምን ከምዝረክብ ተረደአት። ሓንቲ ካብኣተን ውላዳ ብሓደጋ ምስ ሞታ፥ ክትበክን ዓቕላ ክተጽብብ ምስ ተመልከተት፥ ነፍስወከፍ ጓለንስተይቲ እዛ ወንጌልን ነቢይ ኤርምያስን ዝዛረቡላ “ራሄል” ኢያ፥ ኢላ ናይ ር.ሊ. ጳጳሳት ኣብ ላምፐዱዛ ዜስምዕዎ ቃላት እናጠቐሰት፥ ኣብ ሠልጢኑ ዚበሃል ክፋል ዓለም ድንጋጼን ንብዓትን ሎሚ ይተርፍ ከምዘሎ እናመከተት፥ በዞም ኣብ ባሕርን ኣብ ካልእ ዜስካሕክሕ ሓደጋ ወዲቖም ዚጠፍኡኹም ዘለዉ ደቅኹም ክትበኽዩ እንከሎኹም፥ ሓደራ ተዓጺኹም ንበይንኹም ኣይትብከዩ። ሰብ ካናዳ ደንጋጺ ኢዩ፥ ከባኽዩኹም ኢዮም፥ ንጸገምኩም ድማ መፍትሒ ኬናድዩሉ ይኽእሉ ኢዮም።” ኢላ መጸናንዒ ቃላት ኣስመዐት። ከምኡ’ውን ሚስተር ሲዛር ፓላስዮ ኣማኻሪ  ኣመሓድራ ከተማ ቶሮንቶ (ናይ ከባቢ ቤተክርስትያንና ዋርድ 17) ልቢ ዚትንክፍ ምስክርነት ገዛእ ሕይወቱ ኣስመዓና። ኣቦኡ ንካናዳ መጺኡ ከቢድ ሕማም ምስ ሓመመ ኪኣልዮ ኢሉ ካብ ዓዱ ኤኳዶር ወዲ 16 ዓመት እንከሎ መጸ። ካብኡ ኣላይ ኣኅዋቱ ኰይኑ ኵሉ ዓይነት ሥራሕ ጉልበት ኪሠርሕ ጀሚቱ እሞ፤ ሰራሕተይና ብሓፈሻ፥ ብፍላይ ድማ ካብ ወጻኢ ዝመጽእ ሰራሕተኛ ዜጋጥሞ ጸገማት ምስ ተመልከተ ከም ተርጓማይን ከም ተከላኻላይን ኰይኑ ኣብዚ ናይ ሎሚ ዘለዎ ቦታ ከምዚበጽሐ መስከአልና። ካናዳ፥ ብፍላይ ድማ  “the capital city of minorities” ኢሉ ዚጽዋዓ ቶሮንቶ ብዙሕ ዕድል ንጻዕራም ሰራሕተይና ምዃና ኣመልኪቱ፥ ዜተባብዕ ቃላት ተዛሪቡ።

ኣብ መወዳእታ ድማ ነዚ ናይ ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት መደባት ናይ ገንዘብ ሓገዝ ካብ ዶክተር ኣብዱላሂ በሪህ ናይ $2,500.00ን ካብ ሚ/ር ደቪድ ካራንዛ $2,000.00ን ዝተወፈየ ቼክ ንኣባ ቪቶርዮ ቦርያ ተዋሂቡ።  ንዅሎም እቶም ብምኽሪ፥ ብገንዘብ፥ ብትምህርቲ፥ ብጕልበት፥ ብንብረት፥ ወይ ብዝተፈላለየ ካልእ መንገዲ ነዚ መደብ ከምዚዕወት ዚገበሩ፥ ኣባላት ኮሚቴ “ጥርዓን ሥደተይናታት ኤርትራ” ልባዊ ምስጋና የቕርቡ።

A MOMENT OF PRAYER DR. BERIH

PARTICIPANTS

 
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3 ኅዳር 2013 “መዓልቲ ሓዘን” ብደረጃ ኣፍሪቃ ኪውዕል
ቤት ጽሕፈት ኣፍሪቅዊ ሓድነት ወሲኑ

366 ዝኾኑ “ደቂ ኣፍሪቃ”፥ 98% ኤርትራውያን ምዃኖም ዝተረጋገጸ ኢዩ፥ ብ3 ጥቅምቲ 2013 ኣብ ማእከላይ ባሕሪ ከምዝሞቱ ምሉእ ዓለም ምስ ሓዘነን ምስ በኸየን፥ ኣበይ ዚጸንሑ ኣብ ኣዲስ ኣበባ ዝመደበሮም ሰበ ሥልጣን ሓድነት ኣፍሪቃ፥ ድሕሪ ኵሎም፥ ካብ ከቢድ ድቃስ ከም ዝተበራበሩ፥ ሓደ መግለጺ ኣውጺኦም። እዚ ናይ 366 መንእሰያትን ሕጻናትን ሕይወት ህልቀት፥ ካብ ዝተመዝገበ ታሪኽ ኣፍሪቃ እቲ ዝገደደ ጉድኣት ምዃኑ ተኣሚኖምሉ። ኣፍሪቃ ኪሃንጹዋ ዚግብኦም መንእሰያት ከምዚ ገይራ እንተጥፊኣቶም፥ ከመይ ገይራ ኢያ ማዕረ ካልኦት ሃገራት ዓለም ክትምዕብል ትኽእል? ዚብል ሕቶ ኣቕሪቦም። ስለዚስ ንመንእሰያታ ንክትሓቍፍን ምሉእ ናይ ዜግነት ሓላፍነት ክተልብሶም እንተዀይና፥ መንእሰያት ዚሓትዎ መሰረታዊ ነጥብታት፥ መራሕቲ ዓዲ ኪፈልጡሎም፥ ዓቕሞም ዘፍቀዶን በብቕሩብን ሓድሓደ ለውጥታት ኬርእዩዎም ከምዚግብኦም ኪእመኑሎም ኣለዎም። በዚ ዘሎናዮ ጊዜ፥ ለይቲ ኣብ ጸልማት ኪሓድር እንተዀይኑ፥ ቀለብ ብመቝነን ኪዕደል እንተዀይኑ፥ ሓዳር ኪገብርን ደቁን ሰበይቱን ኬዕንግል ዘይፍቀደሉ ኣንተዀይኑ፥ ዓመት ድሕሪ ዓመት ኣብ በረኻ ኪውዕልን ኪሓድርን ኣንተዀይኑ፥ ጸገሙ ዚጭርሸሉ ኵነታት ዚረአዮ ዕድል ኣንተዘየሎ፥ ሕማቕን ሕሙምን እንተዘይኰይኑ፥ መን ኢዩ ዓዱ ኪርጥርጥ ዘይሓስብ?  ብዝኾነ፥ ዕለት 3 ኅዳር 2013 ንዝኽሪ እዞም ግዳያት ላምፐዱዛ ዕሸል “ደቂ ኣፍሪቃ”፥ “መዓልቲ ሓዘን” ኣብ ምሉ ኣፍሪቃ ኪውዕል ጻዊዒት ገይሮም።

እንተኾነ፥ ሎሚ ዲዩ ኣፍሪቃዊ መንእሰይ ካብ ዓዱ ሃዲሙ፥ ኣብ ማእከላይ ባሕሪ ይኹን፥ ኣብ ባሕሪ ኣደን፥ ኣብ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ፥ ኣብ ኣትላንቲክ ኦሺያን ዚጥሕሉ ዘሎ? ካብ ዕስራ ዓመት ንላዕሊዶ የብሉን ምድረበዳ ሳሃራ መቓብር ኣሻሓት መንእሰያት ካብ ዚኸውን? ኣብ ቤተ ጽሕፈቶምሲ “ኣፍሪቃውያን” ኣብ ሲናይ ግዳይ ተዋገይቲ ይኾኑ ከምዘለዉ ወረ ኣይተሰምዐን ዲዩ? ነቶም ኣብ እስራኤል ዑቕባ ኪሓቱ ኣትዮም፥ ሶሊኾም ዝኣተዉ ጸላእቲ፥ “መንሽሮ” “ካብ ዚዋግኡና ዓሌታት ዝገደዱ ጠንቂ” ተባሂሎም ተኣሲሮም ዘለዉ ኣሻሓት መንእሰያት  ይጣበቑሎምዶ ኣለዉ ኢዮም? ጉዳይ ድቃስ ስኢኑን ድቃስ ዚኸልእን ዘሎ “ኣፍሪቃዊ” መንእሰይ ኣብ ኅቡራት መንግኅታት ኣብጺሖምዎ ዲዮም? ኣብ ኣኼባታቶም ተማጒቶሙሉ ይፈልጡዶ? ኣፍሪቃዊ መፍትሒ ኣናድዮምሉዶ? ብዛዕባ ዶብ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ኣልዒሎም ንዚኵነን ኰኒኖም፥ ብሕጋዊ መንግዲ ኪፍታሕ ዝገበሩዎ ተግባራዊ ስጉምትታ እንታይ ኣሎ? ከምኡ ብዛዕባ ካልእ ኣብ ኣፍሪቃ ዝተረኽቡን ዘለዉን ግድላት እንታይ ገይሮም ይፈልጡ?

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Sinai Becomes Prison for African Migrants
By SARAH LYNCH Published: October 31, 2012 Source:NYTimes.com

African asylum seekers waited on the Egyptian side of the border fence with Israel in early September. The trip for those trying to cross from Egypt to Israel has become increasingly dangerous as criminal gangs in Sinai have taken migrants and asylum seekers hostage. AL-MEHDIA, EGYPT — Frisgy Gamienbay, a 21-year-old Eritrean, was emaciated when Egyptian Bedouins discovered him late one September evening in the Sinai Desert near the Egyptian-Israeli border. A few weeks later, he died in an Egyptian hospital near the Rafah border crossing into Gaza.
When he was found he had not eaten for three weeks and had been tortured, said a man named Abou Hamad, who cared for Mr. Gamienbay at his house in the area in the days before he died.

The Egyptian government began military operations in August to root out extremists and get Sinai under control. But despite an increased security presence, criminal gangs in Sinai continue to take migrants and asylum seekers hostage en route to Israel. They are held for ransom and often tortured.

“This is one of the most serious human rights concerns in Egypt and it’s not being addressed,” said Nicholas Piachaud, North Africa campaigner for Amnesty International. “It’s a tragedy which has unfolded across many different countries and is playing out on an international scale but being ignored by the international community.”

Sub-Saharan migrants, refugees and asylum seekers began moving northward, aiming to enter Israel, around 2006, said Shahar Shoham, who directs the migrants department at Physicians for Human Rights-Israel, which provides medical treatment for them.

At first they were mostly Sudanese, who paid as much $2,000 to be taken to Israel, said Abou Mahmoud, a Sinai Bedouin who said he used to smuggle them.

But since 2008 they have mostly come from Eritrea, said Ms. Shoham and other experts. It is these Eritreans who have become the main targets of extortion and trafficking.

Meron Estefanos, a human rights activist and radio presenter in Sweden for Radio Erena, which broadcasts in Eritrea and via satellite around the world, said that in some cases criminals lured young Eritreans seeking asylum in Ethiopia into crossing Sinai instead, with a promise of better lives in Israel. They then kidnap them, she said.

Over the past 20 months, human rights workers in Egypt, Israel and Europe have documented a disturbing new trend.

Hostages in Sinai say they never intended to go to Israel but were kidnapped in Sudan or Ethiopia on their way to refugee camps and sold to Sinai criminals to be held for ransom.

“We are actually talking about a few hundred in Israel that didn’t plan to come here,” Ms. Shoham said.

The kidnappers are members of the Rashaida tribe in Eritrea and Sudan, or other Eritreans, according to a September report by Europe External Policy Advisers, a research group in Brussels, and Tilburg University, in the Netherlands. The report was based on 104 interviews with hostages, conducted primarily by telephone while they were being held.

Many said they had been kidnapped from refugee camps, including the Shagarab camp, in Sudan, and Mai Aini, in Ethiopia.
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"Come and pick us up, we're sinking"
The coast guard saves 226 migrants

The patrol boats intervened in Lybian waters after a message from a barge with a satellite phone and collected by Don Moses Zerai, an Eritrean priest in charge of the Habeshia Agency.
PALERMO  = 226 migrants of sub-Saharan origin (including 37 women and a child, two of them pregnant), aboard two different boats, were rescued and saved by the Italian coastguard in Libyan waters. To collect requests for help, received via satellite, on the evening of yesterday had been Fr. Moses Zerai, the Eritrean priest responsible for the Habeshia  Agency, and Sr. Grace of Bari.

The S.O.S. had arrived with a call from a satellite phone, from a boat load of refugees stranded off the coast of Libya. "Come and pick us, we're going to sink ...". Fr. Moses Zerai, the Eritrean priest responsible for the Habeshia Agency dealing with migrants and asylum seekers, turned the alarm to authorities: "They told me they're at sea from last Friday and that the sea conditions are worsening. We cannot assist helplessly to a new tragedy of the sea ".

The first S.O.S. that collected by Fr. Moses, arrived around 21: "come and pick us up, we're going to sink"; It came from a ship with 111 people aboard, which would take the Sea last Friday and was found about 30 miles from Tripoli. An hour later, the second request for help, from a boat with 115 other migrants, about 60 miles from Tripoli. The port authorities have immediately hijacked tugboat area "Asso 30". Tranfer shipment operations concluded
of all passengers, the Coast Guard patrol boats have taken over the route to Lampedusa.

 
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Israeli Forces Accused of Cruelty Against Refugees
Finally the Eritrean refugees who were trapped between the Egyptian and Israeli borders had a chance to speak about their ordeal: the 18 asylum seekers that Israel refused to let them cross the fence describe what happened and how it happend. Please read the following article www.haaretz.com.

Reading this article, it came spontaneous in my mind the cry to the Lord by Habacuc 1 that the Church has assigned for this Tuesday of the 23rd Week of Ordinary time (Sept 11, 2012). Habacuc was raising this prayer for his people that were oppressed and were facing annihilation from the those surrounding them. In the past millennia, the Israelis suffered more than any other people on earth all types of abuses and injustices. Even now, and in their own land, which they repossessed thanks to the support from the great powers, they are continuously on the alert. As a people who have this extraordinary experience in humanity, shouldn't they then stand out from all other peoples in the Middle East as advocates of the "poor, the orphan, the widow and the alien?" Should they not fight to defend the 1951 Convention of Geneva for the Refugees, for the drafting of which Israel was a leading force? One way to do so could be by going to the root causes of this unprecedented flow of refugees and promoting just and durable solutions.
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The Israel Defense Forces is still preventing the entry of Eritrean asylum seekers


Sister Aziza from Physicians for Human Rights is turned away by the army and police from the zone where African refugees are being held on Israel’s southern border, September 6, 2012 (photo: SGActivestills.org)THESE PAST TWO DAYS Human rights institutions have been repeatedly reporting of and condemning that some 20 Eritrean refugee-claimants are being denied access to Israel by the fence recently built by the defence system of that country.  Not only, but the border controlling military units have been ordered to provide the unfortunate only drinking water :"Only the barely minimum." Of the protection seeking derelicts, two are women, one of whom visibly pregnant had a miscarriage: it does not take much of thinking in linking traumatic stress, fear, hunger, thirst and miscarriage. UNHCR representatives in the country pleaded with the Israeli Government to let the unfortunate in, as signatories of the 1951 Geneva Convention for the Refugees. The sarcastic response from the Interrior Ministry was: "In the situation in which I have to chose between the safety of the country by sealing the borders or to let refugees in the country, I choose the safety of the borders."
Likewise, other volunteer organizations have been prevented by the border guards to provide food and medication. Roman used to say: "Historia magistra vitae" or "We learn from past events!" This does not seem to be the case now. History repeats itself.

In 1939, 937 Jews fleeing from the Nazi Germany were denied entry in Cuba, US, and Canada, and forced to return to Europe.  Historians claim that, after their return to Europe, approximately a quarter of the ship's passengers died at the hands of the Nazis.
The Israeli MOI is well aware that these Eritrean refugees have undertaken this "TRIP TO HELL"
after paying hefty sums to smugglers; in the process some of them may have been sold to human traffickers in Sudan or in the Sinai Peninsula and redeemed by paying thousands of dollars by relatives who are bleeding out their last resources, only to be abandoned in the desert and exposing them to the Egyptian patrolling units who first shoot and then ask for identity papers.  The Israeli MOI knows very well Egyptian authorities have refouled Eritrean refugees against their will.
Is this the case that the first generation of yesterday's victims is turning around and victimize an even more disoriented and abandoned people?
Is the Israeli Interior Minister acting on behalf of the people of the Covenant who was instructed: "You shall not violate the rights of the alien . . . Remember that you were once slaves in Egypt" (Dt 24:17), or are the Israelis complacently looking the other way and choose to ignore his decisions on their behalf?

 
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